IBM Press Release
Made in IBM Labs: IBM Scientists Demonstrate Memory Breakthrough for the First Time
• Reliable multi-bit phase-change memory technology demonstrated
• Scientists achieved a 100 times performance increase in write latency
compared to Flash
• Enables a paradigm shift for enterprise IT and storage systems,
including cloud computing by 2016
ZURICH, June 30, 2011 – For the first time, scientists at IBM Research have
demonstrated that a relatively new memory technology, known as phase-change
memory (PCM), can reliably store multiple data bits per cell over extended
periods of time. This significant improvement advances the development of
low-cost, faster and more durable memory applications for consumer devices,
including mobile phones and cloud storage, as well as high-performance
applications, such as enterprise data storage. With a combination of
speed, endurance, non-volatility and density, PCM can enable a paradigm shift for enterprise IT and storage systems within the next five years.
Scientists have long been searching for a universal, non-volatile memory
technology with far superior performance than Flash – today’s most
ubiquitous non-volatile memory technology. The benefits of such a memory
technology would allow computers and servers to boot instantaneously and
significantly enhance the overall performance of IT systems. A promising
contender is PCM that can write and retrieve data 100 times faster than
Flash, enable high storage capacities and not lose data when the power is
turned off. Unlike Flash, PCM is also very durable and can endure at least
10 million write cycles, compared to current enterprise-class Flash at
30,000 cycles or consumer-class Flash at 3,000 cycles. While 3,000 cycles
will out live many consumer devices, 30,000 cycles are orders of magnitude
too low to be suitable for enterprise applications. (see chart for
“As organizations and consumers increasingly embrace cloud-computing models
and services, whereby most of the data is stored and processed in the
cloud, ever more powerful and efficient, yet affordable storage
technologies are needed,” states Dr. Haris Pozidis, Manager of Memory and
Probe Technologies at IBM Research – Zurich. “By demonstrating a multi-bit
phase-change memory technology which achieves for the first time
reliability levels akin to those required for enterprise applications, we
made a big step towards enabling practical memory devices based on
Multi-level Phase Change Memory Breakthrough
To achieve this breakthrough demonstration IBM scientists in Zurich used
advanced modulation coding techniques to mitigate the problem of short-term
drift in multi-bit PCM, which causes the stored resistance levels to shift
over time, which in turn creates read errors. Up to now, reliable retention
of data has only been shown for single bit-per-cell PCM, whereas no such
results on multi-bit PCM have been reported.
PCM leverages the resistance change that occurs in the material — an alloy
of various elements — when it changes its phase from crystalline –
featuring low resistance – to amorphous – featuring high resistance – to
store data bits. In a PCM cell, where a phase-change material is deposited
between a top and a bottom electrode, phase change can controllably be
induced by applying voltage or current pulses of different strengths.
These heat up the material and when distinct temperature thresholds are
reached cause the material to change from crystalline to amorphous or vice
In addition, depending on the voltage, more or less material between the
electrodes will undergo a phase change, which directly affects the cell’s
resistance. Scientists exploit that aspect to store not only one bit, but
multiple bits per cell. In the present work, IBM scientists used four
distinct resistance levels to store the bit combinations “00”, “01” 10″ and
To achieve the demonstrated reliability, crucial technical advancements in
the “read” and “write” process were necessary. The scientists implemented
an iterative “write” process to overcome deviations in the resistance due
to inherent variability in the memory cells and the phase-change materials:
“We apply a voltage pulse based on the deviation from the desired level and
then measure the resistance. If the desired level of resistance is not
achieved, we apply another voltage pulse and measure again – until we
achieve the exact level,” explains Pozidis.
Despite using the iterative process, the scientists achieved a worst-case
write latency of about 10 microseconds, which represents a 100x performance
increase over even the most advanced Flash memory on the market today.
For demonstrating reliable read-out of data bits, the scientists needed to
tackle the problem of resistance drift. Because of structural relaxation
of the atoms in the amorphous state, the resistance increases over time
after the phase change, eventually causing errors in the read-out. To
overcome that issue, the IBM scientists applied an advanced modulation
coding technique that is inherently drift-tolerant. The modulation coding
technique is based on the fact that, on average, the relative order of
programmed cells with different resistance levels does not change due to
Using that technique, the IBM scientists were able to mitigate drift and
demonstrate long- term retention of bits stored in a subarray of 200,000
cells of their PCM test chip, fabricated in 90-nanometer CMOS technology.
The PCM test chip was designed and fabricated by scientists and engineers
located in Burlington, Vermont; Yorktown Heights, New York and in Zurich.
This retention experiment has been under way for more than five months,
indicating that multi-bit PCM can achieve a level of reliability that is
suitable for practical applications.
The PCM research project at IBM Research – Zurich will continue to be
studied at the recently opened Binnig and Rohrer Nanotechnology Center.
The center, which is jointly operated by IBM and ETH Zurich as part of a
strategic partnership in nanosciences, offers a cutting-edge
infrastructure, including a large cleanroom for micro- and nanofabrication
as well as six “noise-free” labs, especially shielded laboratories for
highly sensitive experiments.
Thanks to IBM Press release
So, as an RPG* Developer I am definitely biased towards IBM’s best and most versatile language. IBM RPG has evolved massively from the early Report Program Generator that it was designed to be. The latest Incarnation of RPG is a leading edge web -savvy object oriented SOA language.
The following are the new features of RPG in V7R1
1) Open access
2) Sorting and searching data in Data Structure Arrays
3) New operation extenders
4) %Lookup works with Datastructure Array
5) New BIF %SCANRPL
6) No need to have prototypes for subprocedures that are internal to the module
7) New keyword RTNPARM on the (Procedure Interface level) PI level
8) ALIAS Longer names defined in DDS /SQL can be accessed in RPG
Sorting and searching data in Data Structure Arrays
Now using file manipulation opcodes ( READ, WRITE, CHAIN, EXFMT ) we can access the data that is available not only on the 5250 stream. We can access from browser , Handhelp devices..etc..
For that we need to write the program which handles the request made by the RPG program and these are called “ Handlers”
We can have now sort the data in the Data Structure
D InvoiceInfo DS Dim(1000)
D Invoice# 8
D Invdate D
D InvAmt 12p 2
// If wanted to SortByName
//If wanted to SortBy InvAmt
The * indicates the level at which the sorting should occur. Of course, in this example, it’s pretty obvious, since it’s the only level where sorting is possible. But this sorting capability also works with nested Data Structures, so even very complicated structures can be sorted.
Two new operation extenders are available for SORTA
SORTA(A) – for ascending
SORTA(D) – for descending
%Lookup works with Datastructure Array
Index = %LookUp( ‘ABC’: InvoiceInfo(*).Invoice#);
New BIF %SCANRPL ( To scan and replace )
This BIF is combination of %SCAN and %REPLACE
Today (8th Feb, 2010) IBM is announcing the first of the POWER7 processor-based systems that, compared to POWER6, deliver four times the energy efficiency and twice the performance at the same or better price. Simply put, this is one of those rare breakthrough announcements that delivers a massive leap in system technology. And, yes, IBM i is right at the center of the POWER7 action! We’re announcing three new systems that support IBM i. The Power 750 is a midrange business server that’s ENERGY STAR qualified and offers up to 32 POWER7 cores with up to 181,000 CPW. The Power 770 extends the very successful 570 modular enterprise server, with up to 64 POWER7 cores and up to 292,000 CPW. The third new server, the Power 780, introduces a new category of scalable high-end servers, with up to 64 POWER7 cores, up to 343,000 CPW and a new TurboCore option for optimal throughput. IBM is making a statement of direction that we will deliver a high-end server in 2010 that will offer up to 256 cores — remarkably in the same physical footprint and energy envelope as the current POWER6 Power 595. For the many mid-sized companies using the Power 520 server, IBM is also making a statement of direction that we will provide upgrade paths in 2010 from the POWER6 Power 520 2- and 4-core servers to next generation of POWER7 processor-based entry servers. The POWER7 processor features a multi-core design with up to 8 cores per socket, ranging between 3.0 and 4.14 GHz, and delivering more performance per core with greater energy efficiency than POWER6. Compare a Power 550 5.0 GHz POWER6 with 8 cores versus a Power 750 at 3.3 GHz with 8 cores, for example, and you get 26 percent more CPW performance. Or compare a Power 570 5.0 GHz POWER6 with 16 cores, versus a Power 780 at 3.86 GHz, and you get 35 percent more CPW performance. Impressive. Note that POWER7 is the first Power processor generation to support all of our tier-one operating systems — AIX, IBM i and Linux — up front. And since IBM i 6.1.1 — which we announced last October — is supported with POWER7, we already have thousands of applications ready to run. And, with IBM i 7.1 coming soon, this year looks to be a great one for IBM i users.
Written by Ian Jarman, Power Systems Software manager.
There are the ground breaking enhancements of RPG in 7.1 release.
Feature 1 ) RPG to access non DB2 database like ORACLE, MySql…
Feature 2) RPG to interface with browser applications , XML or mobile devices. So no need to buy/install the modernization product to make your green screen applications are web enable.
RPG Open will do that for you in native way.
This is the step to take RPG to next level.
These are the enhancement we will be wanting from IBM.
So Let’s wait for it announcement on 2010 & Let RPG talk to web browser directly.
Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) plans to bid jointly with CMC, a government-focused subsidiary it acquired some eight years ago, for projects worth almost Rs. 5,000 crore to set up the country’s unique citizen database. The world’s biggest citizen database being set up by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) will rely heavily on biometric and fingerprint information of the country’s 1.2 billion citizens, and would seek solution providers who can bring relevant expertise.
As reported by the Economic Times, “Whether we bid as a consortium or not will largely depend on the conditions specified in the RFP (request for proposal). If they want a single point of contact, then CMC will act as a sub-contractor to TCS,” said R Ramanan, CEO and MD of CMC. Meanwhile, multinational rivals IBM along with Wipro and Infosys are already preparing solutions to bid for the UID project, and like many other projects, TCS will face some aggressive competition.
TCS has been leveraging CMC’s relationships with different government agencies and departments in order to create a competitive government business, bigger than domestic rivals Wipro and Infosys. For instance, TCS worked together with CMC on winning the Rs. 1,000 crore e-passport project awarded last year. TCS had acquired 51 percent stake in CMC for around Rs. 150 crore in October 2001.
“For some of these projects, an existing capability and understanding brought by the age-old CMC helps them do better,” said a senior executive at one of the rival firms, which had bid for the passport project. The senior executive also added, “Training is one of the biggest bottlenecks in any government project-and this is where CMC proves an asset to TCS.”
Experts such as Alok Shende, Principal Analyst of Ascentius Consulting said that CMC does provide TCS an edge over others. “It makes sense for TCS to bid with CMC because of its experience of working on similar deals in the past. Capability is not just about having the technology do it but also the experience and the track record. This is especially important in the government sector,” said Shende.
“We have worked together on all major mission mode projects such as the MCA (Ministry of Company Affairs) e-governance project and SWAN (state-wide area network) projects in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Bihar,” said Ramanan. Computerisation of State Electricity Boards (SEBs) has proved to be another area of opportunity for both CMC and TCS. By jointly bidding for these projects, TCS has, so far, bagged two out of the three projects awarded by the SEBs.
On the biometric front, CMC has already implemented a project for the Chattisgarh government. The project uses fingerprinting devices in combination with other technologies to establish the identity of a person and provide services such as issue of birth and death certificates and ration cards through citizen servic information. “A biometric committee has already been set up and it’s working on the details,” said Nandan Nilekani, Chairman of UIDAI.